2021 R&D FIELD TRIALS SUMMARY & RESULTS

R&D FIELD TRIALS SHOW POSITIVE RESULTS AND A PROMISING FUTURE

This summary provides a snapshot of the overall Trécé R&D program, highlighting results of a few trials from last season. Trécé conducted many laboratory and field trials, developing and testing new innovative technology. The results of these studies will guide the future of Trécé’s R&D program, ultimately resulting in the launch of new commercial products that growers and pest managers can add to their existing IPM program.

CIDETRAK® MATING DISRUPTION

Multiple field trials were conducted by Trécé and its R&D cooperators over the past two seasons to optimize novel, ultra-low density CIDETRAK® mating disruption dispensers for key insect pests of tree fruits such as Codling Moth and Navel Orangeworm. These ultra-low density dispenser systems will allow for further reduction of the number of dispensers applied per acre, significantly decreasing the labor input, while maintaining the superior efficacy and long-lasting full season performance of CIDETRAK mating disruption products.

Additionally, several liquid sprayable pheromone products formulated with advanced microencapsulation technology have been developed and field tested to target increased field longevity to improve overall field performance for key pests of tree fruit, vines, and tree nuts.

PHEROCON® Monitoring Systems

A new monitoring system has been developed and extensively field tested for spotted wing drosophila (SWD) with cooperators in several states and in a variety of crops. The PHEROCON® SWD STKY™ trap incorporates the attractive red color as a visual cue and an adhesive specific to SWD that increases captures and retention, improving overall field performance. In replicated field trials, the SWD STKY trap baited with the SWD PEEL-PAK™ Broad Spectrum Lure consistently showed higher SWD captures compared with other trap types, and had lower non-target captures in some crops.

Species-specific adhesives are being developed for monitoring traps optimized for each target insect pest to maximize capture and retention, while decreasing the impacts of abiotic factors such as UV, humidity, and temperature. Several novel adhesives are being tested in trials for monitoring traps such as the PHEROCON BMSB STKY DUAL™ Panel Adhesive Trap for BMSB, and the PEW STKY DUAL Panel Adhesive Trap for pepper weevil.

A monitoring system for spotted lanternfly (SLF) has been developed and field tested. Two different monitoring trap designs are currently available, and attractants are being tested in laboratory and field studies by cooperators to ultimately develop an attractive lure for monitoring and detection.

Field Trial Comparative Chart

Danielle KirkpatrickDanielle Kirkpatrick, Ph.D.
Global Technical Support Coordinator

© 2022, Trécé Inc., Adair, OK USA ∙ ® is a registered trademark and ™ is a trademark of Trécé Inc., Adair, OK 74330 USA

Navel Orange Worm

Navel Orangeworm, Amyelois transitella

Pherocon SWD Sticky Trap Image

SWD STKY Trap

SWD_Lure

SWD Broad Spectrum Lure


NAVEL ORANGEWORM (NOW) IPM – SELECTED QUESTIONS


USAID Engages Private Sector to Protect Georgia’s Crops from Pests

Watch the full USAID Video HERE.


CIDETRAK® IMM MEC™: A Microencapsulated Sprayable Pheromone for Indian Meal Moth


BROWN MARMORATED STINK BUG MONITORING TRAP AND LURE: PERFORMANCE SUMMARY AND DIRECTIVE


STORGARD® WB Probe II® Grain Beetle Trap


WB II Probe Trap: Reduced Length and Efficacy on Trap Catches

WB II Probe Trap: Reduced Length and Efficacy on Trap Catches

Charles E. Konemann

Abstract

The demand on secure non-infested grain products has increasingly grown as the world’s population has continued to increase. Historically, the WB II probe trap has demonstrated its reliability as a useful tool in the monitoring of stored product pests.

Recently, our research lab performed replicated comparisons between our standard 13.125-inch STORGARD WB PROBE II grain insect monitoring trap against three reduced trap lengths using three stored product insect species over five sampling periods. Results showed that the reduced tube lengths of 6.5-, 8.5- and 10.5 inches, on average, caught statistically similar numbers of all three species combined compared to the standard length 13.125-inch probe trap.

On average 8.5-inch traps caught more insects overall than all other lengths. Thereby showing that while shorter, the reduced lengths provided optimum efficacy in trap catches, maintaining the WB II’s reliability as a useful IPM tool for stored grain insect monitoring.

Introduction

According to the Food Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) rice, wheat, and corn are the top three food staples of the world, especially in developing countries (FAO, 2021). The United States produced approximately 1.86 billion bushels of wheat in 2020 worth 9.32 billion U. S. dollars (NASS, 2020; Statistica, 2021).   IPM tools are a must for monitoring of stored product pests can be performed efficiently and accurately.

Pitfall style traps have previously been shown to be excellent at determining population densities of stored product insects, including Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus granaries, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, and Tribolium castaneum in a variety of grain storage facilities across Europe (Aulicky et al. 2016).

Historically, the WB II probe trap has proven to be very reliable for the detection of stored product pests, primarily beetles (Toews et al. 2005). The WB II probe trap was previously shown to monitor for granary weevils (Sitophilus graniarius) during the summertime months in the United Kingdom (Wakefield and Cogan 1991).  Whereas Trematerra, (1998) noted that WB II probe trap catches of Sitophilus oryzae, T. castaneum and O. surinamensis were similar in wheat and maize. Similarly, Toews et al, (2003), demonstrated that the WB II probe trap caught as many Cryptolestes ferruginues when compared with similar types of probe traps. In fact, previously it had been shown that the WB II probe trap is effective in trapping Rhyzopertha dominica, Ahasverus advena, Typhaea stercorea along with Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Hagstrum 2001).

Primarily due to increasing oil prices, production costs have also increased. we examined the idea of reducing the size of the WB II to reduce the overall cost of production allowing us to continue to sell a reliable IPM product at a reasonable price.

Materials and Methods

Probe Trap Sizes: Three shortened versions of our WB II probe traps measuring 6.5-, 8.5-, 10.5-inches and compared those with our standard length of 13.125-inches (Fig. 1). This test was performed to see if length had any overall effect, whether negative or positive, on trap catches over-time at 24-, 48-, 72-, 96-, and 120-hours.

Test commodity: USDA certified non-GMO hard red winter wheat purchased from 4-Generations farms near Alva, Oklahoma. Upon receiving the wheat, it was cleaned by using ASTM certified testing sieves; #10, #14, #18, and #20. This was done to ensure that no insects were present in the wheat before the addition of laboratory-reared species.

Bioassay arenas: This test utilized four 7-gallon sealable buckets filled with organic (certified that no pesticide had been applied) hard red winter wheat to within approximately three-inches from the top of each bucket (Fig. 2). This was done to fully insert the longest of the probes to just below the surface of the wheat.  

Insects:  Three species of laboratory-reared stored product beetles: Rice weevil (RW) (Sitophilus oryzae), red flour beetle (RFB) (Tribolium castaneum), and Saw-toothed grain beetle (STGB) (Oryzaephilus surinamensis) were utilized.

Procedure: One hundred beetles from each species consisting of mixed-sex were added to each of the four buckets 24-hours before insertion of the probe traps to allow the beetles to disperse in the wheat. Pre-cut versions of the WB II probe trap, along with the standard trap were inserted into the wheat to just below the wheat’s surface. Trap catches were evaluated at 24-, 48-, 96-, and 120-hours. Dead insects found in the traps were discarded and replaced with live insects to maintain 100 individuals of each species at the time of evaluation.

Statistics: The mean number of insects caught was generated using Microsoft Excel. The data was recorded for each individual species and all three species combined.

Results and Discussion

Interestingly, our results show that after 120-hours in the wheat, our 8.5-inch version of the WB II caught slightly more of all three species combined when compared with longer versions including the 13.125-inch trap.  The much shorter 6.5-inch trap had the least of all total insects caught (Fig. 3).

When evaluated according to species, after 120 hours  6.5-, 8.5- and 13.125-inch probe traps caught an equal number of RW. (fig. 4).  Trap captures of STBG in the 8.5-inch WB II were comparable to the other three sizes at each sampling time, however, the 8.5inch caught more STGB at 24-,48-, and 96-hrs than the longer trap versions (Fig. 5).  Interestingly, RFB showed an almost linear increase in the number of beetles caught in all trap sizes with the 8.5-inch probe trap catching the most at each sampling (Fig. 6).

Our research showed that reducing the size of the WB II did not have a negative effect on trap catches. the 8.5-inch version of the WB II was comparable to all other trap sizes in trapping all three beetle species.

The reduction in size and the ability to monitor beetle populations maintain the WB II ability to be a reliable monitoring tool.  Further research is being developed to test if the depth at which the 8.5-inch probe is inserted in the grain has an impact on the number of beetles caught.

References Sited

Aulicky, R., Stejskal,V.,  Cucerova, Z., and Trematerra, P. 2016. Trapping of internal and external feeding stored grain beetle pests with two types of pitfall traps: A two-year study. Plant Protection Science, 1(52): 45-53.

Fleurat-Lessard, F., 2011. Monitoring insect pest populations in grain storage: the European context. Stewart Postharvest Rev3(4).

Food Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2021. http://www.fao.org/3/u8480e/u8480e07.htm

Hagstrum, D. W. 2001. Immigration of insects into bins storing newly harvested wheat on Kansas farms. Journal of Stored Product Research, 37: 221-229.

Nation Geographic 2021. https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/food-staple/

Statistica, 2021. https://www.statista.com/statistics/190362/total-us-wheat-production-value-from-2000/

Toews, M. D., Phillips, T. W. and Payton, M. E. 2005. Estimating populations of grain beetles using probe traps in wheat-filled concrete silos. Environmental Entomology, 34(3): 712-718.

Toews, M. D., Phillips, T. W. and Shuman, D. 2003. Electronic and manual monitoring of Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae) in stored wheat. Journal of Stored Products, 39: 541-554.

Trematerra, P. 1998. Capture of stored-grain Coleoptera with WB Probe II Trap: influence of grain type. Anz. Schadlingskde., Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz 71: 135–137

USDA, NASS, 2021. https://downloads.usda.library.cornell.edu/usda- esmis/files/k35694332/348509606/d791t862r/cpvl0221.pdf

USDA, World Agriculture Supply and Demand Estimates, 2021. WASDE-616, Wheat.

Wakefield, M. E., and Cogan, P. M. 1999. The use of a managed bulk grain for the evaluation of PC, Pitfall beaker, Insect probe and WB II Probe traps for monitoring Sitophilus granaries during the winter and summer in the UK. Journal of Stored Product Research, 35(4): 329-338.


Spotted Lanternfly (SLF)

A potential serious crop and nuisance pest

Spotted Lanternfly (Lycorma delicatula), or SLF, is an invasive insect first detected in Pennsylvania in 2014 and has since spread to at least 8 additional states (stopslf.org).

SLF is a significant threat to the agriculture industry with the potential to cause serious damage to trees, vines, crops, and ornamentals. Honeydew, a sticky, sugary byproduct of SLF feeding, disturbingly rains down from trees and builds up, promoting the growth of sooty mold and attracting bees, wasps, and other insects.

Additionally, SLF is a residential nuisance pest and affects the quality of life for homeowners and tourists.

SLF Phenology

SLF has one generation per year and survives winter as egg masses. They are commonly laid on host trees, but females will lay their eggs in a variety of places including vehicles, stones, bricks, picnic tables, and other outdoor surfaces. Covered in a grayish putty-like substance, egg masses can become camouflaged against the substrate they are laid on, providing one method of assisted dispersal for SLF populations.

THE MONITORING TRAP
Two trap options are available; the PHEROCON® SLF Trap with Replaceable Bag design or the PHEROCON® SLF Trap with Reusable Full Season Reservoir. Both traps utilize the same bottom design that attaches to the tree trunk but have different top reservoirs for capturing SLF. The replaceable bag design allows for the whole bag to be replaced and disposed of once full, and the reusable reservoir can be emptied and reused over the entire season. Choice of trap design depends on user preference.

Currently, there are no attractants identified for SLF. However, Trécé is conducting ongoing collaborative research with the USDA ARS to develop attractants. While current trap designs are useful, it is believed that effective attractants will improve these as management tools.

TRAP PLACEMENT AND TIMING

Traps should be placed by mid- to late-April. Attach one trap to the trunk of the host tree approximately 4 ft high. Secure trap against tree trunk by wrapping the bottom material tightly around the trunk using staples to secure the thickest part.

OTHER IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS

If SLF is captured outside quarantine zones, it should be reported to extension authorities or state department of agriculture. Many states, such as California, Michigan, Washington state, and Florida, among others, have quarantines in place or have released pest alerts to increase awareness.

For additional information regarding PHEROCON® SLF monitoring traps, please see the TRECE IPM PARTNER SLF Guidelines for Use.

Danielle KirkpatrickDanielle Kirkpatrick, Ph.D.
Global Technical Support Coordinator

 

 

 

© 2021, Trécé Inc., Adair, OK USA ∙ ® is a registered trademark and ™ is a trademark of Trécé Inc., Adair, OK 74330 USA

 


Oklahoma Ag Company Engaging in Azerbaijani Market

OKLAHOMA CITY– Trécé, a small, Adair, Oklahoma-based company that is currently the leading manufacturer and supplier of insect monitoring systems for agriculture in the United States is continuing to grow its worldwide footprint by working to develop a market and export its products to Azerbaijan. Trécé [pronounced tray-say] currently sells products already in all 50 U.S. states and 51 other countries around the world.

“Trécé introduces solutions for Azerbaijani farmers to fight insects in host crops through pest management approach,” said Natig Bakhishov, United States-Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce Executive Director. “Trécé’s mating disruption technology which is widely utilized in over 50 countries globally reduces reliance on pesticides and helps to save beneficial insects and the environment. Lesser pesticides in crops mean safer and healthier food on our plates.”

This partnership was cultivated after the 2019 Oklahoma-Azerbaijan Agriculture Forum, held in Oklahoma City. Trécé’s most recent trip followed a July trade mission to Azerbaijan by Governor Kevin Stitt, Secretary of Agriculture Blayne Arthur, Secretary of Commerce Scott Mueller and other members of the Governor’s staff.

“I am pleased to see Trécé leading the way in expanding our partnership with Azerbaijan,” said Gov. Stitt. “Trécé is an example of how Oklahoma companies have the products and expertise to improve the lives of people in Azerbaijan and all over the world.”

Bill Lingren, founder and CEO of Trécé, said their mission in Azerbaijan is to produce long-term economic and political benefits to their company, their state and their nation by aiding the Azeri agriculturists in adopting our solutions for Integrated Pest Management programs in certain of their key crops.

“Our overall main goal is to introduce the technologies that Trécé currently offers for pest-management world-wide, but has not been introduced to Azerbaijan yet,” said Danielle Kirkpatrick, Global Technical Support Coordinator for Trécé. “From my last visit, local growers were asking me how quickly we can get this product from Oklahoma to them. Azerbaijani producers are excited to get these products as quickly as they can.”

Additionally, Trécé is working with Azerbaijan State Agriculture University and Oklahoma State University through their Memorandum of Agreement for a Dual Master’s Program. They are all working together to craft an internship for students, allowing for knowledge of pesticide management to be passed to the next generation of producers.


GYPSY MOTH (GM) IPM with Monitoring Traps and Lures

Gypsy Moth (GM), Lymantria dispar, is one of the most destructive pests to ever be introduced to the US. Although oak is preferred, caterpillars feed on over 300 species of tree and shrub species such as apple, birches, pines, and spruces, among others. Infestations are cyclic and regional. Effective management strategies can be used to slow the spread of gypsy moth movement into suitable, uninfested areas or reduce the risk of tree mortality from repeated defoliation. Strategies include physical removal of egg masses, tree banding for caterpillars, insecticide use, and traps baited with a pheromone lure that attracts male gypsy moths. Effective programs utilize early detection through monitoring followed with well timed applications of insecticides targeting specific life stages.

Caterpillars hatch from egg masses in spring, first appearing dark and hairy, then developing characteristic markings as they increase in size. They defoliate trees as they feed; however most broadleaf trees produce new foliage in response to defoliation of less than 50%. Defoliation leaves trees vulnerable to diseases and other pests that can eventually kill the tree.

Suppression strategies include Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk), a naturally occurring soil bacterium that has been formulated into a commercial biological insecticide targeting foliar-feeding, early instar larvae. It is favored in many large-scale treatment programs because it is effective against high-density populations and has limited non-target effects. Btk is typically applied from an aircraft but can also be applied to the canopy from the ground. Application of broad-spectrum insecticides to the tree crown can also be used to target larvae. Immediate and persistent toxicity of these products may benefit homeowners, but non-target effects make them unfavorable for use in larger treatment programs.

Pheromone-baited delta traps can be used to detect low abundance of gypsy moth populations, providing the opportunity to manage new infestations before they reach outbreak numbers and cause detrimental effects. Additionally, pheromone traps can monitor population spread and evaluate the success of treatment programs. The PHEROCON® IIID Trap is the preferred trap used in survey and detection programs.

Adults are usually present from mid- to late-June through mid- to late-September depending on location. PHEROCON IIID Traps should be set up in a trapping grid to ensure appropriate distribution of traps throughout the survey area. The distance between traps will depend on the density of traps used and the objectives of the program. Proper traps placement is on host trees, 4-5 feet high, on woodland edges, and on the windward side so prevailing winds carry the pheromone into the woods.

Trécé has time tested monitoring products that are frequently the choice of government research and quarantine programs like USDA APHIS and Forest Service. And the good news is that these are readily available from your local supplier, Great Lakes IPM. Visit their website and webstore to learn more about available gypsy moth traps and lures.

Always contact local extension authorities and consultants for regional advice. For additional information regarding PHEROCON GM insect monitoring traps and lures, please visit the Trécé IPM Partner® Guidelines for Use or contact a Trécé Rep.

 

Danielle KirkpatrickDanielle Kirkpatrick, Ph.D.
Global Technical Support Coordinator

 

 

 

© 2021, Trécé Inc., Adair, OK USA ∙ ® is a registered trademark and ™ is a trademark of Trécé Inc., Adair, OK 74330 USA